Page 1 of 2 12 LastLast
Results 1 to 15 of 18

Thread: Creole Pig: The US Eradication of the Haitian Golden Pig That Destroyed The Peasant's

  1. #1
    Banned Capitaine is offline
    Join Date
    Jan 2011
    Location
    Canada
    Posts
    7,587
    Credits
    520,540

    Creole Pig: The US Eradication of the Haitian Golden Pig That Destroyed The Peasant's

    Creole Pig: The US Eradication of the Haitian Golden Pig That Destroyed The Peasant's

    Many of You probably don't Know about This Story But Is Was One Of The Biggest Tragedy Against The Haitian Peasant

    It was Black, Strong, Free, And Very Resilient Just As Any Haitian And Was Their Livestock since Slavery

    Before 1982 Haiti Was The Biggest Exporter Of Pig And Poultry In The Caribbean Until Uncle Sam Decide It Was In Their Best Interest to Destroy Our Pigs



  2. #2
    Searching For Answers Hello BKLYN's Avatar Hello BKLYN is offline
    Join Date
    Sep 2009
    Location
    brooklyn
    Posts
    16,683
    Credits
    33,918,899
    any articles on this?
    how did they eradicate the pig?
    the healthy man does not torture others - generally it is the tortured who turn into torturers.

    Carl G. Jung

  3. #3
    Banned Capitaine is offline
    Join Date
    Jan 2011
    Location
    Canada
    Posts
    7,587
    Credits
    520,540

    Haiti's Piggy Bank Pt.1


  4. #4
    Banned Capitaine is offline
    Join Date
    Jan 2011
    Location
    Canada
    Posts
    7,587
    Credits
    520,540
    Violence takes many forms. Ask any Haitian. Sometimes it assumes a physical manifestation – a punch, a kick, the slice of a knife, or the shot of a gun. Other times, it assumes the more abstract form of structural violence as first espoused by Johann Galtung and later by Paul Farmer and Philippe Bourgois and characterized by a set of conditions that indirectly result in physical and mental harm. Many other times, the violence falls somewhere in between, as in the case of what is commonly referred to as the Creole Pig Disaster.

    While a disproportionate percentage of the Haitian population resides in its city centers, the majority of country still consists of rural hamlets where livestock plays important and versatile roles. In this environment, a good pig is worth its weight in gold.

    All over the globe and throughout history, pigs have been recognized as Nature’s jack-of-all-trades farming utility. As scavengers, they consumed a large variety of human and domestic wastes, ate weeds, wild plants, and roots, and often went after all sorts of worms and insects that might infest gardens and farms. They also served as sources of food – though it was often a hard decision whether they were more valuable as tools or food.

    Haitian farmers were no different and relied heavily on their pigs. Quite often, a good pig symbolized a source of prosperity. It was said that the domestic pig served as the rural Haitian’s bank account. It was a tangible source of value that could be sold, traded, or used in place of money. That was why the U.S. Government‘s insistence on the slaughter of all Haitian pigs in May 1982 was such a source of pain, devastation, and suspicion.

    Here’s some context.

    African swine fever struck the eastern side of the Dominican Republic in 1978. In 1979, the disease appeared in the Haitian Artibonite region. The disease presumably travelled via the Artibonite river which physically connects Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Usually, the mortality rate for the disease hovers around 99% but as chance would have it, the strain of the fever that emerged in Haiti was far less virulent and many pigs survived or were not infected. The outbreak on the island peaked in 1980.

    It was not until 1982 that the United States – citing fears that the outbreak spread to American farms – demanded the slaughter of all Haitian pigs and of course, when the superpower of the region makes a demand, a tiny nation like Haiti has no choice but to comply. And so it did – amid the protestations of Haiti’s hard-working and perpetually impoverished farmers who made their case against the slaughter.

    The country has been rife with rumours that the pigs were sacrificed for no good reason, and may Haitians have questioned whether the disease was even threatening their pigs. Among villagers discussing the pig eradication programme, some said it was unneccessary; that there had been no disease, that it was a plot. After all, their black pigs had lived for 500 years uner extremely poor conditions and had become immune to most diseases… It was perfectly adapted to some of the most miserable raising conditions in the world and could go days without food. (Bernard Diederich, “Swine Fever Ironies”)

    As a way of “helping” Haitian farmers, the United States orchestrated the importation of American pigs (all bought and paid for) to fill Haiti’s farms. Unfortunately, the pink American pigs were so fragile and unaccustomed to the Haitian terrain that most of them died. The ones that survived could not roam free. Yes, they were pigs, but they were different types that thrived within small pens. As a result, Haitian farmers with little or no money had to somehow pay for the construction of pens made for these types of pigs. Presumably, American know-how was employed (and paid) in the process. Making matters worse, the new pigs were not scavengers like old Creole pigs. On the contrary they needed to be fed very specific feed that farmers had no choice to buy from – you guessed it – American corporations. The pig food was so expensive that it was commonly said that the pigs ate better than their owners. And after all that, Haitian farmers concluded it would take years for the delicate pink American pigs to become “Haitianised,” if it happened at all.

    The slaughtering of Haiti’s pigs resulted in much bitterness and further exacerbated the country’s impoverishment. Over 13 months, roughly $23,000,000 was wasted on the eradication. One American veterinarian involved in the re-population program said, “In monetary terms, it’s a loss to the Haitian peasant of $600,000,000.”

    In the end, the loss was incalculable. A Haitian economist put it best when he said that as a result of America’s actions, Haiti’s peasant economy was “reeling from the impact of being without pigs. A while way of life has been destroyed in this survival economy… This is the worst calamity to ever befall the peasant.”

    Whether it was a conspiracy or not is debatable – as conspiracies tend to be. However, what is not debatable is that American Agri-business benefited monetarily from the Creole pig disaster and its aftermath while the Haitian peasant lost what little money he had.

  5. #5
    Banned Capitaine is offline
    Join Date
    Jan 2011
    Location
    Canada
    Posts
    7,587
    Credits
    520,540

    Pandemics, Pigs and Peasants

    In the spring of 2009, the stench of rotting food filled the streets of Cairo, Egypt. Garbage stood piled high, left to decay, and flies and rats swelled in number. In the neighborhoods around the city’s dump, the unusual quiet was marked with a kind of sadness. Something was not right; something had changed. The pigs were gone.

    As tales of swine flu began to make their way across the world, the government of Egypt decided to take a drastic measure — kill all the pigs in the country. It was a strong response, more political then epidemiological. And as international agencies and governments began to criticize the move, pointing out that the pigs weren’t primarily responsible for spreading the disease to human beings, Egyptian officials quickly changed the reason for the pig slaughter from disease prevention to improving the lives of the pigs’ owners.

    Those owners are the Zabaleen, a group of minority Coptic Christians who are the primary garbage collectors of Cairo. The Zabaleen fed their pigs with the organic waste they found in the bags of garbage they collected from the homes of Cairo’s nearly 7 million citizens, selling much of the rest for recycling. Garbage collecting and sorting was the livelihood of the Zabaleen, and the pigs were an essential part of that.


    But pigs were unwelcome by many in Egypt, a majority Muslim country where swine are considered unclean. Their eradication was welcomed by those who saw both the pigs and the Zabaleen as undesirable elements in Egyptian society, both outsiders of a certain kind.
    Now, months after the pigs were killed, Cairo’s streets are stinking with the rotting garbage that the pigs once ate. And as many as 400,000 Zabaleen face a new way of life without an essential part of their livelihood and lifestyle. The already impoverished minority now has a harder road ahead as they seek to rebuild their lives. Social critics say the Egyptian government acted hastily, without consulting the people who would be most affected and without thinking carefully about the consequences.

    The story of Egypt’s pig slaughter and its aftermath recalls a similar failed reaction to a swine-borne disease. This time the disease was African swine fever, the place was Haiti, and the United States government supported the slaughter.

    The African swine fever triggered an animal extermination in the early 1980s on the island of Hispaniola, shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic, that resulted in the extermination of a small black Creole pig that had inhabited the island since the arrival of the Spanish. Just like the extermination of pigs in Egypt, the death of the Creole pig brought with it dire consequences for the peasants who depended on the pig for their livelihood—a wrong that is only now being addressed. With the work of French scientists and grassroots organizations, a new version of the Creole pig is making a comeback and is bettering the lives of Haitian peasants, the poorest of the poor in the Western Hemisphere.

  6. #6
    Banned Capitaine is offline
    Join Date
    Jan 2011
    Location
    Canada
    Posts
    7,587
    Credits
    520,540
    In 1971, African swine fever, a highly contagious swine virus that debilitates an animal’s nervous system, appeared in Cuba, its first appearance in the Western Hemisphere. It was a highly contagious virus, spreading quickly with a 99 percent mortality rate, and the only way to eradicate it was to isolate and kill infected swine as quickly as possible. Without the ability to test every animal and given the rapid spread of the disease, many authorities reacted with a total slaughter of pigs. In Cuba, this resulted in the death of 460,000 swine.

    The disease appeared again in 1978 in the Dominican Republic after an airport employee supposedly fed a local pig contaminated scraps from Spain. The Dominican authorities asked for help from the United States Department of Agriculture to identify the disease that they had never seen before. Once the disease was identified, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, with the cooperation of the Dominican Republic government, began an eradication program to prevent the spread of the disease further, especially to keep it from leaving the island nation and infecting pig operations in the United States and Mexico. The U.S. Department of Agriculture agreed, once the swine fever had been eradicated from the Dominican Republic, to replace the slaughtered pigs with high-quality American pigs derived from the Yorkshire and Duroc breeds.


    Pigs are a "living savings account" for many rural Hatians, like this mother of five. The Peasant Movement of the National Congress of Papaye is pursuing a Creole pig re-population project to increase the breed's numbers. Meanwhile, next door in Haiti, dictator Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier heard that the U.S. government was paying $15 for every piglet, $25 for every young pig and $40 for every adult pig killed in the Dominican Republic. Baby Doc was keen to begin an eradication program in Haiti, a country where no money passed without Baby Doc taking his cut, so he invited the U.S. to begin an epidemiological study in the country.
    Sure enough, African swine fever was discovered in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti, though interestingly enough, few of the Haitian pigs had died of the disease. The skinny Haitian pigs, known by the peasants who kept them as kochon planch (plank pigs), were highly resistant to disease and well adapted to the tropical Haitian environment. These small, black pigs were the descendants of pigs released on the island by the Spanish and various pirates in the 16th century. With 500 years of selection, adapting them to the local environment, the Haitian pigs were perfectly suited to the Haitian environment and agricultural system.

    The pigs are said to have been able to go for three days without eating and survive on meager scraps of food. They would eat tubers and worms in farmers’ fields after the harvest, naturally plowing the soil for the next harvest and reducing beetle larvae that were harmful to plants.

    But with African swine fever’s presence among the Creole pigs and the encouragement and cooperation of the Duvalier government, in 1982 the U.S. began a $22-million program to eradicate the pigs of 800,000 Haitian families. The U.S. Department of Agriculture did not respond to requests for comment on its involvement in the eradication of pigs in Haiti in the 1980s.

    As former Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide wrote of the program, “With an efficiency not since seen among development projects, all of the Creole pigs were killed over a period of 13 months.” The Haitian peasants made every effort to hide the pigs, with stories of some peasant women even burying their pigs with straws in their nostrils and voodoo priests hiding the black pigs that were essential to their sacrifices, but by 1984 every Creole pig had been killed. An entire breed of livestock was lost and the world’s genetic diversity was a little more impoverished.


    The Haitian Piggy Bank

    Though the loss of the Creole pig was devastating to Haitian agriculture, it had an even more detrimental effect on the Haitian peasant economy. The pigs were literally the banks of most Haitian peasants, the means by which Haitians paid for schoolbooks and uniforms, weddings and funerals. According to Salena Tramel of Grassroots International, the pigs were “more of an asset than a regular source of income or food.”

    With such a complete loss of their primary asset system, the Haitian peasantry was devastated. As Paul Farmer, founder of Partners in Health, recounts in his book AIDS and Accusation, one peasant in the town of Kay, where Farmer works, referred to the pig slaughter as “the very last thing left in the possible punishments that have afflicted us. We knew we couldn’t have cows. We knew we couldn’t have goats. We resigned ourselves, because at least we had our pigs.” With those pigs gone, the Haitian peasantry suffered more than just an economic loss valued at $600 million; they lost a whole way of life. One Haitian economist, quoted in Bernard Diederich’s Swine Fever Ironies, said, “This is the worst calamity to ever befall the peasant.”

    With what was essentially the de-capitalization of the Haitian peasant economy, the effects of the swine eradication were quickly seen. The year following the pig eradication school attendance dropped by more than 30 percent, protein intake decreased and crops and soil suffered without the deep plowing and pest eradication the pigs provided.

    Recognizing the need for pigs in the Haitian economy, USA ID began a program to introduce new, improved American pigs to Haiti. These pigs, similar to the kind grown by large U.S. pork producers, were introduced to the applause of the elites in the Duvalier government who were excited to have the larger, more modern breeds. But the Haitian peasants were not so welcoming.

    First, there was the cost of actually getting a pig. The U.S. required that peasants provide proper shelter with a concrete floor and demonstrate an ability to feed the pigs before they would place pigs with a family. Given that most Haitians do not have concrete floors themselves, this was prohibitive for many families. Even more than this, the feed cost for the pigs was $90 a year, while most Haitians only make about $130 annually. The American pigs were also more sensitive to disease and required regular veterinary care. The peasants quickly began referring to the pigs as princes a quarter pieds, or “four-footed princes.”

  7. #7
    Banned Capitaine is offline
    Join Date
    Jan 2011
    Location
    Canada
    Posts
    7,587
    Credits
    520,540
    In 1985, a year after total eradication of the Creole pig, the French government began a program whose aim was, according to Bernard Smolikowski, a development attaché at the French Embassy in Haiti, “to reintroduce a new breed more adapted to local conditions.” The project was driven by French development workers who saw, even as the Creole pigs were being exterminated, the effect that the loss would have on the Haitian economy. These French development workers, believing that the best replacement for the Creole pig would be something similar to the breed that was lost, began to look at ways to bring a new pig onto the scene—one very much like the kochon planch.

    This new breed of pig was developed by a team of French scientists mostly working out of the French National Institute for Agronomic Research. It drew from black pigs in China that were small yet highly productive, crossed with a breed from Gascony, in the south of France, that was probably related to the forebears of the Haitian pig. Scientists then crossed the Sino-Gascon pigs with a spotted pig from the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe that was adapted to the tropical environment.


    A bulldozer buries pigs culled by their owners near Cairo, Egypt. The Egyptian government ordered the slaughter of all the country's pigs during the swine flu scare of 2009, a move criticized as unnecessary by the World Health Organization. At first the Haitian government resisted the idea of introducing this “rustic” breed to Haiti. The Haitian elites wanted the more “modern” American pigs and could afford to keep them. But the Haitian peasantry was still without the resources to care for the demanding “four-footed princes.” It was not until after the Duvalier dictatorship was overthrown that the French sent the first of their new pigs to Haiti, never officially gaining permission from the government. But the new black pig quickly spread throughout Haiti, even breeding with the white American pigs to create new hybrid strains.
    The French program continued until around 1994. The peasants of Haiti have now taken the reintroduction of Haitian pigs into their own hands. The National Congress of Papaye Peasant Movement (MPNKP ), a grassroots organization of more than a 100,000 Haitians, is working to revitalize the Haitian peasant asset system with the new, more locally appropriate breed of pig. Working with Grassroots International, an organization that provides support to grassroots development efforts around the globe, the MPNKP is introducing the new Creole pigs to villages using a model familiar to Heifer supporters—creating a system through which pigs are placed with families that pass on the gift of livestock to neighboring families.

    The actual breed of pig now being used is a genetic potpourri whose origins are hard to track, though they likely descended from a mix of the American pigs, the Sino-Gascon-Guadeloupe pigs developed by the French and a breed similar to the original Haitian pig introduced from the islands of the Lesser Antilles. With the mix of breeds and the selection of more than a decade on the Haitian terrain, it seems that there is hope for a return of the Haitian pig once again.

    But just as the eradication of the Haitian pigs was about much more than simply the pigs themselves, so the efforts to reintroduce the pigs is about more than simply providing a new source of food and income to the community. As Salena Tramel of Grassroots International said, “It’s not only about the pigs; its about the community food sovereignty that happens when peasants come together.” Peasants are taking control of their production again and through the cooperative breeding efforts of the MPNKP and Grassroots International, the peasants are having critical conversations about how they can ensure and control their own food supply with their own system of agriculture and locally adapted livestock—not a system of livestock that is introduced from the outside.

    Democratic Development

    The story of the Haitian pig, its eradication and the successes and failures of introducing new pigs to Haiti is a story that points to the importance of appropriate technology and of listening to the needs of the people most affected by a government policy or development effort. When the Haitian pig was eradicated, no one counted the true cost of that action to the Haitian people, just as the Egyptian government did not account for the impact its swine eradication would have on the Zabaleen or trash control.

    In Haiti, a whole breed of pig, a breed that evidently had disease resistance that would have been useful to preserve, was wiped out because of fear and greed. Then an effort to repair the damage was guided not by the local context, but by opinions about the superiority of First-World agricultural systems. These were decisions made in the vacuum of government offices with no real evaluation of the needs and wants of the people. Thankfully, those needs are now being met, a wrong now being righted through the efforts of organizations that are working with the peasants rather than simply for them.

    The story of the Haitian pig is also a story about the need to preserve the world’s genetic diversity. Heirloom plants get a great deal of attention, but there are also heritage breeds of livestock that are threatened. Systems of agriculture that force the local environment and landscape to fit the needs of agriculture rather than the needs of the landscape and people betray the best agricultural traditions, traditions that rely on working with the landscape rather than in spite of it. A large variety of animal and plant breeds—breeds that developed out of the diversity of needs and landscapes—is necessary to create and preserve systems of agriculture that are appropriate to specific places and economies.

    With the recent extermination of pigs in Egypt, a governmental decree again clashed with public good and traditional livelihoods. Panic spread faster than any epidemic, and the lessons learned from Haiti’s mass culling went unheeded. Cairo is now a city of rot and reek, hundreds of thousands are without their livelihoods and Egypt is a country without swine.

  8. #8
    Registered User SKBai1991's Avatar SKBai1991 is offline
    Join Date
    Apr 2010
    Location
    New York
    Posts
    5,673
    Credits
    6,139,365
    It wasn't just the pigs...the United States government has put a concerted effort into destroying the agricultural industry of the Caribbean as a whole. Rice, bananas, livestock, sugarcane...all of it was decimated thanks to uncle sam.

    "sa ki ta'w sé ta'w, la rivié pé pa chayé'l "


    Father, before mi mind get bad
    Betta yuh flip it round and mek mi mind get mad
    Mi prefer fi work hard everyday fi achieve mi goals
    Nah grudge nobody fi dem own

  9. #9
    Girl Crush Mrs. Campbell's Avatar Mrs. Campbell is offline
    Join Date
    Sep 2005
    Location
    Here...
    Posts
    28,462
    Credits
    207,989,120
    Quote Originally Posted by SKBai1991 View Post
    It wasn't just the pigs...the United States government has put a concerted effort into destroying the agricultural industry of the Caribbean as a whole. Rice, bananas, livestock, sugarcane...all of it was decimated thanks to uncle sam.

    Check David Rudder song "Banana Dead"; he tells the story beautifully.
    Our Queen went to sleep, her people left to weep....in song she lives on.



    Long Live the Queen!

  10. #10
    Registered User Aquinhaiti4ever is offline
    Join Date
    Sep 2009
    Location
    ATL/Lawrenceville GA
    Posts
    1,071
    Credits
    2,064,347
    They killed all Haitian pigs replace them with white pigs that was crazy

  11. #11
    where de crix Oneshot's Avatar Oneshot is offline
    Join Date
    Apr 2003
    Location
    Brick City, NJ
    Posts
    23,426
    Credits
    24,963,342
    Quote Originally Posted by Aquinhaiti4ever View Post
    They killed all Haitian pigs replace them with white pigs that was crazy
    it's our fault as a Caribbean people, we want free trade with america and cannot settle on a free trade area amongst ourselves as yet

  12. #12
    Registered User Aquinhaiti4ever is offline
    Join Date
    Sep 2009
    Location
    ATL/Lawrenceville GA
    Posts
    1,071
    Credits
    2,064,347
    That was dumb on my Haitian government part

  13. #13
    Banned Capitaine is offline
    Join Date
    Jan 2011
    Location
    Canada
    Posts
    7,587
    Credits
    520,540
    Quote Originally Posted by Oneshot View Post
    it's our fault as a Caribbean people, we want free trade with america and cannot settle on a free trade area amongst ourselves as yet
    Precisely

    one of the reason why Haiti is not very close to other country in the region compare to Cuba and later Venezuela it's because in the past there was no unity in the region

    other than Haiti and Cuba the other island in the region was fighting for the interest that was harmful to the rest of the region just to get some trade advantage and aid from the US and Europe

  14. #14
    Banned Capitaine is offline
    Join Date
    Jan 2011
    Location
    Canada
    Posts
    7,587
    Credits
    520,540
    Quote Originally Posted by SKBai1991 View Post
    It wasn't just the pigs...the United States government has put a concerted effort into destroying the agricultural industry of the Caribbean as a whole. Rice, bananas, livestock, sugarcane...all of it was decimated thanks to uncle sam.
    exactly

    there was also the Haitian seed industry in the artibonite river region that was destroyed due to that

    most farmers had lost their pigs they used to give in exchange for seeds to grow crops which contributed also to the destruction of the Haitian Rice industry over there

  15. #15
    Registered User SKBai1991's Avatar SKBai1991 is offline
    Join Date
    Apr 2010
    Location
    New York
    Posts
    5,673
    Credits
    6,139,365
    Quote Originally Posted by Oneshot View Post
    it's our fault as a Caribbean people, we want free trade with america and cannot settle on a free trade area amongst ourselves as yet
    The people never agreed to this, these were circumstances created as a result of corrupt dealings between the US government and Haitian leaders.
    "sa ki ta'w sé ta'w, la rivié pé pa chayé'l "


    Father, before mi mind get bad
    Betta yuh flip it round and mek mi mind get mad
    Mi prefer fi work hard everyday fi achieve mi goals
    Nah grudge nobody fi dem own

Page 1 of 2 12 LastLast

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •